Standardized testing has made several generations suffer due to its anxiety-inducing pressure on students. They’re forced to score well to live the rest of their lives comfortably. More students would have ended up with the profession of their choice. That is, if they weren’t compelled to sit through a discriminatory and parochial method of testing students’ vast talents. Let’s take a look at why standardized testing is slowly colonizing the minds of American children. It is setting them up for a moral collapse. Here are several cons & reasons for standardized tests being bad and racially biased and why they should be abolished immediately.
First up, let us look at the facts. Standardized testing has its roots in ancient China’s Han dynasty. What can be more proof to the modern reader? Ancient Greece had passed down open-ended debates and democratic and fair methods to Western academia. Europe was skeptical in adopting these methods. Great Britain implemented them in their colonies like British India first to examine their worth. It is then a thought-provoking question why educators and lawmakers of America use such an orthodox method. It’s a method of colonization that is now a widespread practice in 21st century America.
From the beginning of their childhood in kindergarten and up to high school graduation, American students suffer. They are judged based on their ability to memorize facts and transfer them onto paper. The average student is compelled to take at least 10 of these exams each year.
Not only this, but these examinations are also heavy on the pocket of the US government. Each year about $1.7 billion is spent on such exams. Imagine the progression of the US education system if this money was spent on making learning more fair and inclusive.
History of the phenomenon
As mentioned above, testing has its roots in China. Still, it began to be adopted in the West during the first World War. One of the major factors contributing to its increased use was the Industrial Revolution in Great Britain.
In the mid-nineteenth century, more and more children were expected to move out of the countryside and into the factory. Standardized testing became a quick and easy way to examine these students and supposedly ‘ease’ their transition.
In the wake of the Great War, young men became the targets of Alpha and Beta testing to sort their abilities. It was used to allocate them suitable assignments. Even after the war, standardized testing became a benchmark to get into good colleges and universities and was. US educators tighten the gates due to a high number of applications. By 1926, the SAT was brought out based on the Army IQ test. In 1959, the ACT was offered for the first time. Today, good scores on these oppressive tests provide the entryway into a good university. There’s only a small chance they will accept a student with multiple talents and skills other than these tests.
Stress and anxiety statistics
A group of researchers from Naval Postgraduate School, Northwestern University, and Texas A&M University students from New Orleans. They looked at the cortisol level in the spit of students in weeks of high-stakes testing and other days of no test-taking. Cortisol is the human body hormone that can be thought of as an in-built alarm system. Its high concentration indicates that the body is stressed or under a flight-or-fight situation. Having high cortisol in the body for a longer period can result in many chronic diseases. It includes diabetes and clinical depression.
In light of this information, the findings of the New Orleans study were eye-opening. It did not only show a 15% higher rate of cortisol on days of testing. Students who showed the highest range differences of cortisol between the two periods performed worse on standardized examinations. If this wasn’t alarming enough, a shocking low drop of cortisol in some students on testing days isn’t a good indicator either. Such a statistic indicates that the body does not find the examination pleasant and therefore does not want to engage with it.
A school psychologist study found that 76% of the respondents felt anxiety was higher for state assessments than local assessments. The study was done among New York’s public school students. A previous board member of the National Association of School Nurses reported she saw an increased number of cases of anxiety and stress. It was in connection to the emphasis on standardized testing. It’s scary to imagine the anxiety that homeschoolers face when they sit under unfamiliar and pressurizing settings like these.
Alliance for Childhood reported that physiological symptoms of such exam stress were vomiting and headaches. Stomachaches and depression are also common issues. Do you think we’re done? Sleeping problems and even anger issues are among the symptoms. Such negative effects on students’ mental and physical health make us question, “is it even worth it?”.
- It’s an unreliable measure of student performance that do not measure intelligence or educational quality.
It’s not just the mental stress and adverse physiological effects harmful to students. It would be worth arguing if the actual results measured anything useful. It could be beneficial if it provided information regarding important factors about the student’s skills and talents.
Students spend months or even years preparing for state-level examinations. They are judged on their ability to memorize textbooks and pen them down. Their performance of a couple of hours on a particular day is used to assess their intelligence. When assessing this performance, factors like the students’ health and family background are not accounted for. Nor is their financial situation.
Other methods like college applications essays hold the ability to glimpse into the student’s mind and their capabilities. It is a far smarter ways to evaluate students.
Even teachers are compelled to teach to the test as educators’ worth is assessed on their students’ scores. This is where real learning is diminished in the classroom. Teachers and students both focus on ‘getting the test right’ rather than learning the lesson.
What they don’t measure
How could an excellent artist’s ability be measured by solving math equations? How could a future retail business owner be assessed on their ability to assess grammar and punctuation? Is it fair to compel a bilingual immigrant students to assess their English skills? Should you force students from violent neighborhoods and low-income backgrounds to take the same tests as high-income group students?
Many researchers have found that doing well does not correlate to a high ability to process knowledge or have excellent problem-solving skills. It simply means that the student does well at memorization and processing them into multiple-choice questions.
Cultural and racial bias
The National Centre for Children in Poverty has recorded that 58% of children from Hispanic families and 61% from Black families are from low-income groups. Furthermore, a CNBC story quotes that wealthier children do better on standardized tests. There is a larger part of the picture that we’re missing then.
Ibram Kendi of the Antiracist Research and Policy Center at Boston University states that these states have become the “most effective racist weapon.” He claims they were intentionally developed to keep Brown and Black students out of good schools.
The National Education Association has maintained that decades’ worth of research concludes these tests exhibit a racial and cultural bias. It is mainly towards Hispanic and Black communities. Some Asian communities are targeted as well.
Private schools and Standardized Tests
We don’t stress how prestigious inner schools have become strict gatekeepers of a larger racist institution. But let’s go into the basics. Good private schools require that a certain score range be achieved to apply. Gruesome research has enabled colleges to identify which results are not usual for Black, Hispanic, and Brown communities. In this manner, they can systematically keep out BIPOC students from elite private schools.
Fair Test Research notes that students of color end up scoring lower on private school admission tests. We should be asking, “What’s wrong with the practice?” We end up questioning, “what’s wrong with the student?”.
- Articles against the practice
CPR News has titled its article “More testing means more stress for teens – and there’s no solution in sight.” The headline alone should is enough to give goosebumps to any parent or student. It’s not only the pressure of being defined by these grades and scores and CPR notes. It’s also the stress that comes with taking on the responsibility of paying off highly unaffordable school fees.
ProCon.org states the Stereotype threat looms heavy overall students. This refers to self-fulfilling prophecies like “Girls can’t do maths” or “Latinos can’t excel in English.” Students belonging to those groups will be under crippling anxiety during the test. It’s due to the pressure of performing well to outdo the stereotype.
Forbes has reported a lawsuit where opponents claim the University of California should do away with the SAT and ACT requirements. It would be abolished for meeting admissions eligibility. The article reports that research does support they overlook racial and economic bias and even children with disabilities. It is one of the medieval strategies of oppressing students until they become abiding and silent citizens.
The Harbinger has also reportedly asked for the elimination of standardized testing. They say it can damage the self-confidence of young, innocent minds before they even enter the real world. Certain families are not even wealthy enough to pay for the fees that colleges require for their admissions process. It keeps them from living up to the requirements.
What type of thinking do they measure in schools?
The Executive Director of Education and Workplace Development states that standardized testing has had no real influence on improving children’s learning. Instead, US students have slipped from rank 14 in 2000 in Math to rank 40 by 2015 on a global ranking scale. So, what do they even measure?
Educators claim that testing certain areas like languages and science helps identify students’ strong and weak points depending on the results. They claim it’s also the case for math and reasoning. They claim it is a quick and short way of evaluating only a limited amount of knowledge. If an accurate system were used to evaluate all domains of a student’s knowledge, the list would be far too long. The result is cruel. Students are subjected to grueling months of memorization and practice. Sometimes in areas, they would most likely never require life skills. Standardized tests only measure how good students are at taking tests in an educational setting. It measures how well teachers can prepare these students for such a calamity.
There are many types of these discriminatory practices taken by thousands of students annually. Here is a list of the most common ones:
- Norm-referenced: These develop the results based on how well the student performed or rather outperformed, the norm group. The norm group is the sample group that takes the test while it is being made. A result of 34 percentile would mean the student did better than 34 percent of the norm group. The norm group could include students from any state like Georgia and Florida to maintain diversity.
- Criterion-referenced: These refer to ones that assess one specific criterion. For instance, second graders can be assessed if they can or cannot identify odd numbers from even numbers. Then they would be put into the reductionist categories of basic, proficient, or mastery regarding a certain domain.
Examples of such in the US include:
- the SAT
- and SBAC
- AP exams
- the LCAT
- and WorkKeys.
The National Education Association has repeatedly made its dissent towards standard tests clear. It has also proposed several alternatives that can prove to be remedial measures for the American Education System. It will revive its ranking globally. Not only are they designed to explore a student’s vast potential, but they are also free of racial and cultural bias.
- Teacher-developed alternatives – When teachers design ways of evaluating students themselves, they will be able to teach what they please. They cam assess students in the best manner. Not only this, but they can also make different tests. They can keep in mind certain learning disabilities and disorders that students often suffer from. Since teachers know their students best, they can even talk them through the areas they did not perform well. Re-test can make sure learning is actually taking place.
- Teacher-student, as well as Teacher-student-parent interviews – Sometimes oral evaluations make the student more comfortable. It is especially if it’s with a familiar face. This type doesn’t have to feel like a deadly exam and can be just a friendly conversation.
- Performance contracts – These help the students achieve what they want to learn and improve, rather than pushing a square peg on a round hole.
What do they REALLY measure?
It’s clear from so many statistics and sources that continual standardized testing can lead to a downfall. The American youth’s bright minds are at risk. Let’s not set them up for failure before they even begin their journey into an array of possibilities. They only measure the rote memorization of students and their ability to mug up facts and vomit them onto answer sheets. It should be done away with for good.
It’s high time we adopt a more inclusive and culturally appropriate teaching method. Let’s evaluate our students in a manner that doesn’t harm their self-esteem and induces chronic stress disorders. Once we do this, educators and policymakers can say that No Child was Left Behind.